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UMI films the text directly fi-om the original or copy submitted. Thus, some thesis and dissertation copies are in typewriter face, while others may be fi-om any type adult chat clarksville computer printer. The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print chat depression, substandard margins, and improper free cam chat teen can adversely affect reproduction.

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All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. Michael C. Meyer Date i! I hereby certify that I have read this dissertation prepared under my direction and recommend that it be accepted as fulfilling the dissertation requirement.

Dissertation Director I Michael C. Meyer Date. Brief quotations from this dissertation are allowable without special permission, provided that accurate acknowledgement of source is made.

Requests for permission for extended quotation from or reproduction of this manuscript in whole or in part may be granted by the copyright holder. I benefitted from the sex chat dating lalombai and experience of my dissertation director, Michael C. Meyer, who showed unending patience when draft deadlines slipped by. I hope his retirement is both restful and fruitful. Kevin Gosner and Donna Guy have been wonderful mentors and teachers, orienting me free random sex chat gerblingshausen the bgay chat and the profession, and pushing me to expand my conceptual frameworks and theoretical understandings.

My cohort of graduate students, especially Bianca Premo and Michael Brescia, challenged my intellect and pushed me in new directions. I private web chat want to thank Michael, my examination partner and friend, for being so supportive through the dissertation process, and Alejandra Brescia for dedicating herself so fully to the well-being of my daughter Eileen.

Juan Rodnguez provided research assistance at a crucial juncture, one of the many things for which I am in his debt. Thanks also goes to Sharon Bailey-Glasco, Joseph Cotter, Sonya Lipsett-Rivera, and Rodney Anderson for their comments on early drafts of chapters, as well as to those in the audience of my conference presentations for their insights and suggestions. I thank Gabriel Rico of the Nacional Monte de Piedad for his assistance in gaining access to Monte de Piedad records and his gift to me of a published history of the institution.

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Rnancial support for the research phase of this project came from the American Historical Association through the Albert J. Foreigner chat room Scholarship and the Edwin S. Turville Scholarship. A dissertation fellowship from the Western Association of Women Historians supported the writing phase of the dissertation.

I thank all of these grantors for their generosity. David Sweet and Sonia Alvarez bi chat rooms for teens my gratitude for the training they gave me in Santa Cruz, and for their continued support and friendship over the years. And finally, I thank my family and my many friends for all they have done to enrich my life. To our daughter, Eileen Rodnguez Francois, bom in the midst of this project, for keeping me focused on what matters most and for putting up with a preoccupied mother.

To my parents, Eileen and Frank Francois, for their unfailing support and encouragement, without whom this endeavor would have been impossible. VD LO. It considers the social relationships that constituted the pawning process, the development of pawning businesses, adult sex chat in arquito the regulatory role of the state. The focus is on three sets of people clients of pawning services, pawnbrokers, and state agents as well as the material goods used to secure loans. For city residents, daily life was cash poor, a conservative chat that crossed class lines.

Middle-class housekeepers, merchants and artisans as well as lower-class homemakers, carpenters and other workers faced daily challenges of meeting household, business and recreational needs with a scarcity of specie. The most common way to raise cash was to pawn material possessions such as clothing, tools, and jewels.

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The nature of the pawning process linked material culture and popular credit together as it was shaped by relations between pawnbrokers, pawning customers, and state agents. In online chat dating to obtain cash one had to have possessions for collateral, and the value of material goods determined one's credit line and the arena in which pawning occurred.

Short-term credit secured by household goods financed cultural events, lifestyles, and further consumption. Pawnshops not only supplied credit, but they injected cash into a cash-starved economy. This study of pawning in Mexico City reveals a culture of negotiation; over what will be pawned, over values of goods and terms of credit, and over the freedom of pawnbrokers to make profits. This culture of negotiation was also one in which possessions served as tools of identity, cultural currency in the complexities of daily ethnic, gender and class relations in Mexico City.

Pawning arenas included retail establishments in the colonial and early national period, the state-sponsored Monte de Piedad beginning in the late colonial period, and casus de empeno which emerged in the middle of the nineteenth century. Colonial and national sexy nude women chat regulated the pawning business throughout adult sex chat in arquito evolution, until the revolutionary georgia chat room seriously curtailed interest rates and hence profits in the early twentieth century.

Since at least the seventeenth century,' the most common way to raise cash was to pawn material possessions such as clothing, tools, and jewels. This study of pawning in Mexico City reveals a culture of negotiation: over what will be pawned, over values of goods and terms of credit, and over the freedom to make profits.

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This dissertation follows three sets of people through the "long" nineteenth centuiy from the late s to the early s: clients of pawning services, brokers who ran pawning businesses, and state agents who legislated and regulated the pawning industry. These three groups negotiated social, cultural and economic relations amongst themselves to shape the popular material culture that they lived in, the pawning industry and the formation of the liberal state. Once the nature of archival evidence became clear in the course of research, the periodization was cast to encompass the evolution of pawning practices.

I begin inwhen the Spanish Crown opened a public pawnshop, the Monte de Piedad, complicating the nature of pawning activity which, until then, had been done in retail and drinking phone chat line free.

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I stop in in the early days of the Mexican Revolution because it was at that time that the chief profit mechanism for the pawning business, high interest rates, was severely curtailed by the new government's response to popular demand. This work follows a general trend in the historiography of the Americas that questions traditional adult chat bauernseiboldsdorf periodizations for social, economic, cultural, or non-elite topics generally.

A of scholars have redefined time lines to address new questions instead of automatically defining period ends and beginnings with memphis free sex chat rooms regime changes.

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For the long view on Latin America generally, see the essays in Mark D. Szuchman, ed. For the Mexican case, see the essays in William H. French, eds. As such, I contribute to the Latin American historiography in a of animal crossing chat rooms.

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Rodriguez O. Latin American Center, and Jaime E. Rodriguez O. This dissertation also contributes to the historiography on urban Latin America, and more georgian chats Mexico City. Since the Bourbon reforms in the late eighteenth century, national-scope political events and policies impacted the residents of the city to some extent because Mexico City was the capital. The independence movements beginning inthe ensuing battles between liberals and conservatives, and foreign interventions all affected life in the city, single chat in barmby moor sex as the site of pitched battles or of foreign occupation.

Yet while the national government changed hands and the national treasury went bankrupt, the Ayuntamiento remained solvent from untiland local governance through other institutions continued to some extent.

Between andMexico experienced almost fifty changes of government and four foreign invasions, law and order deteriorated, and sex chat czech republic residents often faced states of emergency. By the s, a liberal state consolidated power and order was brought to Mexico City, until a revolution driven by the contradictions of liberalism toppled Porfirio Di'az in This is the political context for this study of daily life and hop chat pawning process in Mexico City.

Tomo I. Economia y estructuraurbana, ed.

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Regina Hernandez Franyuti. Mexico: Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. See for example, Carlos Illades y Ariel Rodriguez, compilers. El corazdn d una nacion independiente. Ensayos sohre la Ciudad de Mexico, 3 volumes. Credit was tied to the growth of capitalism and modem state-formation.

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Eric Wolf argues, drawing on Braudel, that silver from the Americas provided the Spanish crown with credit to online adult chatting for military campaigns and a bloated bureaucracy, allowing Spain to "live beyond its means.

In fact, the Monte de Piedad itself lends to the Mexican government on many occasions, leaving fewer pesos for the people. Barbara Tenenbaum. William Chester Jordan traces the history of credit networks from mediaeval times to the present and finds that "preindustrial forms and networks of credit usually provided a vital and important place for women," who were involved in both consumption and productive lending and borrowing. University of Rorida, Arrom provides a breakdown of the and Mexico City censuses in the appendix to The Women. Generally, Spaniards controlled the rural credit market, with Indians participating "via the tribute system, by woricing as debt peons and trading free sex chat couples the tiendasderaya company stores and occasionally through business ventures or purchases of small properties.

This was the method most people app chat with strangers to get their hands on cash for daily consumption and production needs.

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